The SEHS-P is a 20-item self-report measure of covitality for primary school children. Covitality in the SEHS-P is measured from 16 items, with 4 items each assessing gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence. An example item for gratitude is “I am lucky to go to my school.” An example item for optimism is “I expect good things to happen at my school/" An example item for zest is “I get excited when I learn something new at school.” An example item for persistence is “I keep working until I get my schoolwork right.”
Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O’Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the Positive Experiences at School Scale for elementary school children. Child Indicators Research, 6, 753–775.
Iida, J., Ito, A., Aoyama, I., Sugimoto, K., Endo, H., & Furlong, M. J. (2021). Validating a social emotional wellness survey for Japanese elementary school students. Educational and Developmental Psychologist, Published online March 29, 2021.
Renshaw, T. R. (2016). Technical adequacy of the Positive Experiences at School Scale with Adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 757–768.
Wilkins, B., Boman, P., & Mergler, A. (2015). Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children. Cogent Education, 2, 1–11.
Wang, C., Yang, C., Jiang, X., & Furlong, M. J. (2016). Validation of Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary for Chinese students. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 6, 62–74.
The Social Emotional Health Survey-Higher Education (SEHS-HE), is a multidimensional measure of covitality. Confirmatory factor analyses found acceptable fit for the SEHS-HE higher-order covitality latent structure. A final set of 36 items consisted of four latent traits: belief-in-self (sub-scales: self-efficacy, persistence, self-awareness), belief-in-others (sub-scales: family support, institutional support, peer support), emotional competence (sub-scales: cognitive reappraisal, empathy, self-regulation), and engaged living (subscales: gratitude, zest, optimism).
Arslan, G., Allen, K-A., & Craig, H. (2020). Social-emotional health in higher education: a psychometric evaluation with
Turkish students. British Journal of Counseling & Guidance. First online 07 June 2020.
Jones, C. N., You, S., & Furlong, M. J. (2013). A preliminary examination of covitality as integrated wellbeing in college students. Social Indicators Research, 111, 511–526.
Furlong, M. J., You, S., Shishim, M., & Dowdy, E. (2017). Development and validation of the Social Emotional Health Survey–Higher Education version. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 12, 343–367.
Zachariah, S., Boman, P., Mergler, A., & Furlong, M. J. (2015). Effect of self-deception on well-being and anxiety in university students. Cogent Psychology, 2, 993850, 1–17.
The Social Emotional Health Survey– Secondary (SEHS-S) is a 36-item self-report measure that assesses youth’s strengths. Confirmatory factor analyses and invariance testing across multiple groups suggest a higher order-factor structure, with 12 subscales loading onto four second-order traits of belief in self (self-awareness, persistence, self-efficacy), belief in others (school support, family coherence, peer support), emotional competence (empathy, self-control, behavioral self-control), and engaged living (gratitude, zest, and optimism). The second-order traits load onto a higher-order latent trait called covitality. The SEHS-S-2020 is the most recent validated form.
Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Nylund-Gibson, K., Wagle, R., Carter, D., & Hinton, T. (2021). Enhancement and standardization of a universal social-emotional health measure for students’ psychological strengths. Journal of Well-Being Assessment.
Hinton, T., Dowdy, E., Nylund-Gibson, K., Furlong, M. J., & Carter, D. (2021). Examining the Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary for use with Latinx youth. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 39, 242–246.
Wagle, R., Dowdy, E., Furlong, M. J., Nylund-Gibson K., Carter, D., & Hinton, T. (2020). Anonymous vs. self-identified response formats: Implications for mental health screening in schools. Assessment for Effective Intervention. First online 30 September, 2020.